Management of Late Term Pregnancy
Late term pregnancy refers to pregnancies from 41 0/7 through 41 6/7 weeks gestation. Compared to full term pregnancy (39 0/7 - 40 6/7 weeks), late term and post-term pregnancy (42 0/7 weeks and beyond) are associated with increased risks of perinatal morbidities such as oligohydramnios, meconium aspiration syndrome, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, neonatal seizures, neonatal intensive care unit admission, perinatal mortality, and decreased Apgar scores. As pregnancy advances beyond full term, maternal risks of cesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, infection, severe perineal laceration, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increase.
Induction of labor in women without contraindications to vaginal delivery should be considered in the late term period and is recommended in the post-term period. Membrane sweeping is associated with decreased risk of late term pregnancy and can be considered for women after 39 weeks gestation. Membrane sweeping is performed in the setting of a dilated cervix and involves digitally separating the membranes from the lower uterine segment. Women should be counseled that the procedure may be associated with discomfort and vaginal bleeding. Although available data is reassuring, the risks of membrane sweeping in women with group B streptococcus colonization are not clearly defined. Antibiotic prophylaxis, specifically for membrane stripping, is not recommended.
For women who choose expectant management over induction, antepartum fetal surveillance with NST, biophysical profile (BPP), modified BPP, or contraction stress test should be considered starting at 41 weeks EGA. Modified BPP with measurement of the deepest vertical pocket is preferred as compared to the amniotic fluid index. Induction is recommended for oligohydramnios or non-reassuring surveillance.
Confirmation of gestational age should be established for appropriate management, as LMP alone may not provide an accurate EDC, and elective delivery is not recommended in sub-optimally dated pregnancies. For women who desire a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC), reduced maternal and perinatal risks of induction must be weighed against the small increased risk of uterine rupture and TOLAC failure compared to awaiting spontaneous labor. Decisions regarding induction timing should be undertaken in a process of shared decision making with the woman that also considers the resources and policies of the intended delivery setting.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists,. ACOG Committee Opinion No 579: Definition of term pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Nov;122(5):1139-40. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000437385.88715.4a.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 146: Management of late-term and postterm pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Aug;124(2 Pt 1):390-6. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000452744.06088.48.
- Grobman WA, Rice MM, Reddy UM et al. Labor Induction versus Expectant Management in Low-Risk Nulliparous Women. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 9;379(6):513-523. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1800566.
Initial Approval November 2018; Revised July 2020; Minor Revision January 2022
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